Myanmar formally assumed its first-ever tenure as chairman of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The chairmanship is seen as a reward for Myanmar’s recent political reforms under President Thein Sein, and concurrently as a test of both Myanmar’s reforms and its capacity to catch up with neighbours. Attention will be given to how Myanmar will tackle the South China Sea issue given its Paukphaw relations with China, and how Myanmar’s domestic issues such as its on-going political reforms and the Burmese government’s handling of communal violence targeting Muslims. While it will face a number of challenges, Myanmar is expected to adequately handle the chairmanship role.